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Cement Facts

History of Cement
Cement Industry in Malaysia
Manufacture of Ordinary Portland Cement
Raw Materials Preparation
Raw Materials Proportioning & Grinding
Clinker Burning
Cement Grinding
Cement Storage & Despatch
Cement Quality


Manufacture of Ordinary Portland Cement

Cement is a hydraulic binder and is defined as a finely ground inorganic material which, when mixed with water , forms a paste which sets and hardens by means of hydration reactions and processes which , after hardening retains it's strength and stability even under water.

Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) is one of several types of cement being manufactured throughout the world, listed in table 4 are some of the more commonly used. OPC is the general purpose cement used in concrete constructions. OPC is a compound of lime (CaO) , silica (SiO2) , alumina (AL2O3) , iron (Fe2O3) and sulphur trioxide (SO3) (table 5). Magnesium (MgO) is present in small quantities as an impurity associated with limestone. SO3 is added at the grinding stage to retard the setting time of the finished cement. When cement raw materials containing the proper proportions of the essential oxides are ground to a suitable fineness and then burnt to incipient fusion in a kiln , chemical combination takes place , largely in the solid state resulting in a product aptly named clinker. This clinker , when ground to a suitable fineness , together with a small quantity of gypsum (SO3) is Portland Cement.


Types of Cement
Portland Cement
Types ASTM MS Propertise Uses
Ordinary portland cement type I 522 ordinary General
Super High early strength portland cement type III 522 rich in C3S, finer ground, high early strength Winter, Urgent
Super high early strength portland cement     good particle size distribution, rich in SO3 higher in early strength than type III Winter, Urgent
Moderate heat portland cement type II   low in C3S, low in C3A, low heat of hydration & high long term strength Dam, Mass concrete
Low heat portland cement type IV   low heat of hydration, low early strength Dam, Mass concrete
Sulphate resisting cement type V 1037 low in C3A, high chemical resistance Underground water
White portland cement   888 minute in iron, pure-white, fine ground, high early strength Buildings, Arts
Portland blast furnace slag cement type IS 1389 low heat of hydration, good chemical resistance, high long term strength, less shrinkage Dam, Mass concrete
Portland pozzolan cement type IP   blended with siliceous material, low heat of hydration, good durability, good chemical resistance Civil work, Mass concrete
Portland fly-ash cement   1227 good workability & fluidity, slow set, low heat of hydration, high long term strength Civil work, Pre-packed concrete
Super-sulphate slag cement   1388 high long term strength, small shrinkage, easy to aerate Underwater concrete
Masonry cement   794 goodplasticity, water retentivity, water tightness & low shrinkage Masonry, for joints
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